米国ゲイ&レズビアン歴史学者が選ぶ「GLBT史における重大事件」

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クィア・スタディーズ系のメーリングリストに、某学術系データベース会社が作る予定の「ゲイ・レズビアン・バイセクシュアル・トランスジェンダー (GLBT) の歴史」資料についての情報が。ゲイ&レズビアンの歴史学者が監修して、GLBT コミュニティに大きな影響を与えた歴史的事件250件についてのデータベースを作るとかで、それぞれの項目の著者を募集している。その250件というのは既に監修者によって選ばれていて、どう転んでも欧米中心主義的なのに言い訳程度に他の文化について項目が少しだけ選ばれていたり、どう見ても「ゲイ&レズビアン」の歴史中心なのに中途半端にトランスジェンダーの項目が選ばれていたりと(あ、インターセックスも1つだけ選ばれてる)、「米国のゲイ&レズビアンの歴史学者」の認識がよく分かる一次資料として面白いので、項目をここに載せちゃいます。太字は特に重要な項目として選ばれたもの。

1855: Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass
1869: Kertbeny Coins the Terms “Homosexual”and “Heterosexual”
1869: Westphal Advocates Medical Treatment for “Sexual Inversion”
1871: Germany Adopts Paragraph 175
1885: England Criminalizes “Gross Indecency”
1886: Krafft-Ebing Diagnoses “Degenerates”
1886: Zuni Berdache We’wha Visits Washington, D.C.
1892: Alice Mitchell’s Murder Trial
1895: Oscar Wilde Convicted on Charges of Gross Indeceny
1895: Caminha Publishes Latin America’s First Gay Novel, Bom-Crioulo
1896: Ellis Publishes Sexual Inversion
1896: Raffalovich Publishes Uranisme et Unisexualite
1896: Publication of the First Homosexual Journal
1897: Hirschfeld Founds the Scientific Humanitarian Committee

1901: Police Arrest “Los 41”
1903: Gertrude Stein Writes Q.E.D.
1905: Rejection of the “Third Sex” Theory
1906: Friedlander Breaks from the Scientific Humanitarian Committee
1907: Eulenberg Affair: Moltke v. Harden
1908: Carpenter Publishes The Intermediate Sex
1909: Barney Opens Her Paris Salon

1919: Navy Launches a Sting Operation Against “Sexual Perverts”
1922: God of Vengeance Opens on Broadway
1924: Gerber Founds the Society for Human Rights
1925: Eve’s Hangout Opens
1925-1926: Hamilton Lodge Balls
1927: Enactment of the Wade “Padlock” Law
1928: Radclyffe Hall publishes The Well of Loneliness
1929: Pandora’s Box Opens
1929: Davis Correlates Homosexuality with Education

1930: Hollywood Bans “Sexual Perversion” in Films
1934: Night of the Long Knives
1938: Nazis Exterminate Homosexuals
1939: Isherwood Publishes Goodbye to Berlin

1942: U.S. Military Prohibits Homosexual Behavior
1942: Founding of the International Gay and Lesbian Archives
1945: Veterans Benevolent Association Is Established
1947: “Lisa Ben” Issues the First Lesbian Magazine
1948: Kinsey Publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male
1948: Golden Age of Gay Literature
1949: Medical Establishment Recognizes Transsexualism

1951: Foundation of the Mattachine Society
1952: Birth of ONE Inc.
1952-1990: U.S. Halts Gay Immigration
1952: George Jorgensen Becomes Christine Jorgensen
1952: American Psychiatric Association Lists Homosexuality as a Mental Disorder
1953: President Eisenhower Signs Executive Order 10450
1953: Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
1953: Evelyn Hooker Debunks Homosexuality as a “Sickness”
1953-1958: ONE Magazine Begins Publication
1954-1957: Wolfenden Report Appears
1955: Martin and Lyon Found the Daughters of Bilitis
1955: Mattachine Review Begins Publication
1956: Sexual Offences Act Becomes Law (U.K.)
1956: Foster Publishes Sex Variant Women in Literature
1956: Baldwin Publishes Giovanni’s Room
1957ff.: Rise of “Gay Rights” Advocacy
1958: Foundation of the Homosexual Law Reform Society (U.K.)

1960: First National Lesbian Conference
1961: Legalization of Consensual Homosexual Acts
1963: Rechy Publishes City of Night
1964: Demonstration at Whitehall Induction Center
1965: Protests Against Federal Job Discrimination
1964: San Francisco Dubbed America’s “Gay Capital”
1965: Demonstrations at Independence Hall
1965-1968: Cuba Creates UMAPs
1966: First Meeting of the North American Conference of Homosexual Organizations
1966: First Gay Community Center Opens
1966: Compton’s Cafeteria Incident
1967: Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop Opens
1967: Great Britain Decriminalizes Homosexuality
1967: The Advocate Begins Publication
1967ff.: First Student Homophile League Forms
1968: First Full Sex-Change Operation (U.S.)
1968: The Metropolitan Community Church Is Founded in Los Angeles
1968: NACHO Forms the First Gay Political Coalition
1969: The Stonewall Rebellion
1969: Germany Repeals Paragraph 175
1969: Canada Decriminalizes Homosexual Acts
1969: Birth of the Gay Liberation Front
1969: Time Issues “The Homosexual in America”
1969-1973: The Counseling Group Dignity Forms

1970: First Lesbian Bookstore Opens
1970 -06-08: First U.S. Lesbian and Gay Pride March
1970: Friedan Warns Against the “Lavender Menace”
1970: NBC’s Close Up Airs Series on Homosexuality
1970: Radicalesbians Issues The Woman-Identified Woman
1970: First Gay Chicano/Chicana Organization Forms: UNIDOS
1970-1972: First Gay March in London Protests Unequal Age of Consent for Gays and Straights
1971: Canadian Gays Issue the “We Demand” Brief
1971: Foundation of the Los Angeles Gay and Community Services Center
1971: ALA Creates the Gay Book Award
1971: First Lesbian News Periodical Appears: Lesbian Tide
1971: Report of the Third World Gay Revolution
1972: Jordan Becomes First Black Congresswoman from South
1972: Passage of the Equal Rights Amendment
1972: U.S. Civil Service Commission Announces Policy of Non-discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation
1972: Municipal Governments Install Antidiscrimination Policies
1972: First Gay Synagogue Forms
1972: First Openly Gay Minister Is Ordained
1972: First Spanish language “Gay Liberation” Publication Appears: AFUERA
1973: Roe v. Wade Legalizes Abortion
1973: U.S. Supreme Court Supports Local Obscenity Laws
1973: APA Delists Homosexuality as a Mental Disorder
1973: Formation of the National Gay Task Force
1973: “Herstory” Movement Begins
1973: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund Is Founded
1973: National Lesbian Kiss-In
1973: Brown’s Rubyfruit Jungle Published
1973: Foundation of Naiad Press
1973: West Coast Lesbian Conference
1974: ABA Recommends Repeal of Anti-Sodomy Laws
1974: Abzug and Koch Attempt to Add Gays to Civil Rights Act
1974: Puerto Ricans Form Comunidad Orgullo Gay
1974: Antigay Organizations Form
1974: Election of the First Openly Gay Official in the U.S.
1974: Lesbian Connection Begins Publication
1975: Canada’s Immigration Act Opens Borders to Gays
1975: Hobson’s Consenting Adults Published
1975: Creation of the CALIFIA Community
1975: Gay Latino Alliance Forms
1975: Rule Publishes Lesbian Images
1976: Montreal Police Raid Gay Bars
1976: Rose v. Locke Decision
1976: First Michigan Womyn’s Music Festival Held
1977: Anita Bryant Campaigns Against Gay Rights
1977: Toronto Police Raid Gay Newspaper Offices
1977: Quebec’s Charter of Human Rights Includes Homosexuals
1977: A Black Feminist Statement Appears
1978: U.S. Supreme Court Distinguishes Between “Indecent” and “Obscene”
1978: Defeat of the Briggs Initiative
1978: Foundation of the Henry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association
1978: GLAD Is Founded in Boston
1978: Gay Writers Form the Violet Quill
1978: Dan White Murders Milk and Moscone
1978: Mexico’s FHAR Marches for Amnesty of Political Prisoners
1979: Lesbian and Gay Asian Collective Is Formed
1979: Unbound Feet Formed in San Francisco
1979: First Gay British Television Series: Gay Life
1979: Appointment of the First Openly Gay Judge in U.S.
1979: Conditions Publishes the Black Women’s Issue
1979: Falwell Forms the Moral Majority
1979: National Third World Gay Conference
1979: March on Washington for Gay and Lesbian Civil Rights

1980: Canadian Gay Postal Workers Secure Union Protections
1980: Antigay Discrimination Banned in Toronto Schools
1980: Scotland Decriminalizes Male Homosexuality
1980ff.: Asian/Pacific Lesbians and Gays (A/PLG) Founded in Los Angeles
1980: Boozer Nominated for Vice President
1980: Founding of Alyson Publications
1980: Norton Sound Incident
1981: The Gay Men’s Chorus Performs at Carnegie Hall
1981: Toronto Police Raid Gay Bathhouses
1981: Faderman Publishes Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present
1981: Gay “Galimony” and Palimony Suits
1981: Reports of Karposi’s Sarcoma
1981: U.S. Department of Defense Revises Policy on Homosexuals in the Military
1981: P-FLAG Forms in Los Angeles
1981: Foundation of Kitchen Table/Women of Color Press
1981: This Bridge Called My Back Published
1982: San Francisco Holds the First Gay Games
1982: Merle Woo Fired from U.C. Berkeley
1982: First Gay High School
1982: Wisconsin Enacts Gay Civil Rights
1982: Northern Ireland Decriminalizes Male Homosexuality
1982ff.: GRID Is Identified as AIDS
1982: Lorde’s Zami Appears
1983: Birth of the Lesbian and Gay Community Services Center
1983: First Openly Gay Congressman
1984: Berkeley Extends Benefits to Domestic Partners of City Employees
1984: San Francisco Closes Gay Bathhouses
1984: AIDS Virus Is Discovered
1984: First Openly Gay British MP
1984: Rise of West Hollywood’s Gay Government
1985: Canada Bans The Joy of Gay Sex
1985: Ms. Magazine Publishes the Petition for Freedom of Sexual Choice
1985: Rock Hudson Annouces He Has AIDS
1985: GLAAD Monitors Media Coverage of Gays
1985: Democratic Party Ends Recognition of the Gay and Lesbian Caucus
1986: Bowers v. Hardwick Decision
1986: Release of Lesbian Feature Film Desert Hearts
1986: Newsletter Trikon Begins Publication
1986: International Lesbian and Gay People of Color Conference
1986: Californians Reject LaRouche’s Quarantine Initiative
1986: AZT Used to Treat AIDS Patients
1986: El Salvador Transgender Murders
1987: Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights
1987: Randy Shilts Publishes And the Band Played On
1987: Kramer Founds ACT UP
1987: Frank Announces He Is Gay
1987: The Lambda Book Report Begins Publication
1988: First World AIDS Day
1988: Asian Pacific Lesbian Network (APLN) Founded
1988: M. Butterfly Opens on Broadway
1988: Macho Dancer Is Released
1988: First National Coming Out Day
1988: Oregon Repeals Ban on Antigay Job Discrimination
1988: Canada Legalizes Sex Practices Between Consenting Adults
1988: Report of the National AIDS Commission
1988: Robinson Announces He Is Gay
1988: First Lesbian Sorority in the U.S.
1988: Meeting of Latin American and Caribbean Lesbians
1989-1990: Helms Attacks Mapplethorpe’s Photos
1989: Asian Lesbian Network Holds First Conference in Bangkok
1989: Urvashi Vaid Appointed Executive Director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force
1989: Dedication of Stonewall Place
1989: ACT UP Stages Protest in St. Patrick’s Cathedral
1989: Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins Decision
1989: Watkins v. United States Army Decision
1989: First Annual Lambda Literary Award
1989: Death of Billy Tipton

1990: Gays Boycott Philip Morris
1990-1993: Artists Sue the National Endowment for the Arts
1990: Daniel Tsang Establishes the Lesbian and Gay Declassified Documentation Project
1990: Enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act
1990: Congress Passes the Immigration Reform Bill
1990: Formation of United Lesbians of African Heritage
1990: AIDS Impacts Black and Latino Gays
1990: Queer Nation Forms
1990: Foundation of the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission
1991: Revisionist Criticism Castes New Light on Sor Juana de la Cruz
1991: Governor Pete Wilson Vetoes AB101
1991: ALEOC and GAPIMNY Protest Miss Saigon Fundraiser
1991: Minnesota Court Awards Guardianship to Lesbian Partner
1991: Airing of Tongues Untied
1991: LeVay Postulates the “Gay Brain”
1991: Foundation of the International Conference of Transgender Law and Employment Policy
1991: Stone Urges Transsexual Openness
1991: Pete Williams Outed by The Advocate
1992ff.: Celebrity Gays Come Out
1992: Oregon and Colorado Attempt Antigay Initiatives
1992: Canadian Antigay Campaign Revealed
1992: Massachusetts Grants Family Rights to Gay State Workers
1992: Irish Lesbian, Lover of Canadian Citizen, Granted Immigrant Status by Canadian Immigration Service
1992: Canada Lifts Ban on Gays in the Military
1992: Foundation of Lesbian Avengers, International
1992: Transgender Nation Emerges
1992: Canadian YMCA Extends Family Discounts to Gays
1992: Democrats Place Gay Issues on the National Agenda
1992: Leslie Feinberg Publishes Transgender Liberation
1993: March on Washington for Gay, Lesbian, and Bi Equal Rights
1993: Cheryl Chase Founds Intersex Society of North America
1993: The Wedding Banquet Breaks Box-Office Records
1993: Battelle Study Prompts Conservative Backlash
1993: Gays Are Barred from New York’s St. Patrick’s Parade
1993-1999: Hawaii Opens Door to Same-Sex Marriages
1993: Promulgation of the Health Law Standards of Care for Transsexualism
1993: Clinton Issues “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy on Gays in the Military
1993: Achtenberg Becomes Assistant Housing Secretary
1993: Clinton Appoints First AIDS Czar
1993: Rape of Brandon Teena
1993: Canada Grants Asylum Based on Sexuality
1993ff.: Bottoms v. Bottoms
1994: Japanese American Citizens League Supports Same-Sex Marriage
1994: Arthur Dong Releases Coming Out Under Fire
1994: Jones and Rich Receive Genius Awards
1994: Viriginia Slims Women’s Tennis Tournament
1994: Stonewall 25 March
1994ff.: Employment Non-Discrimination Act
1994: American Medical Association Delists Disorders Based on Sexual Orientation
1994: U.N. Revokes International Lesbian and Gay Association’s Consultative Status
1994: Emergence of the Transgender Academic Network
1994: Foundation of the National Association of Lesbian and Gay Community Centers
1995: Best Actor Nominee Nigel Hawthorne Announces He Is Gay
1995: Louganis Announces He Is HIV-Positive
1995: Alan Hart Recognized
1995: Adoption of the International Bill of Gender Rights
1996: Defense of Marriage Act Signed by President Clinton
1996: Fire Is Released in Toronto
1996: Chinese Tongzhi Conference Is Held in Hong Kong
1997: Sodomy Decriminalized in China
1997-2000: Baker v. Vermont Results in Recognition of Same-Sex Unions
1998: Murder of Matthew Shepard
1998: First International Retreat for GLBT Muslims Held in Boston
1998: Presser Publishes Second Skin
1999: The Island Advocates Releasing Convicted Rapists
1999: Hollywood Awards Transgender Portrayals

2000: British Government Reduces Age of Consent for Gay Men to Sixteen
2000: Britain Lifts Ban on Gays in the Military
2000: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
2001: First Same-Sex Partnerships Registered in London
2001: Chinese Psychiatric Association Removes Homosexuality as Mental Disorder
2001: Japan Recognizes Lesbians and Gay Men
2001: Politicians Announce Their Gay Status
2002: Murder of Eddy Araujo
2002: South Korean Lesbians and Gay Men Sue the Government
2002: India Considers Abolishing Sodomy Laws
2002: Taiwan Overturns Ban on Gays in the Military
2003: Walmart Prohibits Antigay Employment Disrimination
2003: Transgender Supporters Observe Remembrance Day
2003: New Mexico Amends Human Rights Act
2003: Britain Recognizes Transgender Marriage
2003: U.S. Supreme Court Overturns Antigay Texas Law
2003: Canada Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage
2003: Australian Court Supports Transsexual Marriage
2003: Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Rules for Same-Sex Marriage
2003: Transsexuals Protest Academic Exploitation
2003: Buenos Aires Recognizes Same-Sex Couples
2003: Robinson Becomes First Openly Gay Bishop-Elect in Episcopalian Church
2003: Taiwan Drafts Legislation to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage
2003: Singapore Lifts Ban on Hiring Lesbian and Gay Employees
2004: IOC Clears Transgender Athletes to Compete in the Olympic Games

さて、2001年の「Japan Recognizes Lesbians and Gay Men」というのはどーゆー意味だか誰か分かりますか? 一体2001年に何が起きたんだろう…

でも、後から気づいたけど250件のはずが何故か300件を超えてる(笑) つまり、執筆者を募集して、集まらなかった項目は外すというコトでしょうかね。

7 Responses - “米国ゲイ&レズビアン歴史学者が選ぶ「GLBT史における重大事件」”

  1. Yoko Says:

    2001: Japan Recognizes Lesbians and Gay Men

    うーん、思いつかない…。最初、「東京都青年の家事件判決」かなと思ったけど、あれは一審が1994年、二審が1997年なんですよね。

    とすると、「第一回東京ゲイ&レズビアンパレード」かな?

    それとトランスがらみで。

    1992: Transgender Nation Emerges

    「トランスジェンダーの国」って一体…(w

    2003: Britain Recognizes Transgender Marriage

    まだ認めてないって…法律(Gender Recognition Act 2004)は成立したけど、まだ発効してません。発効しても2004年でしょ。

    それ以前に、このきっかけとなったEuropean Court of Human RightsのGoodwin判決 (July, 2002)が載ってないのはどうしてなんだろう。

    日本のGID特例法成立(2003)も思いっきり無視されてますね。

  2. Macska Says:

    Transgender Nation というのは、1992年にサンフランシスコで結成されたグループだと思います。当時 Queer Nation という直接行動グループがあって、そこから派生したとか。ちなみにGordene MacKenzieという学者さんが1994年に同名の本を出版してます。

  3. ひっぴぃ ♪♪ Says:

    一つ一つちゃんと確認できていないので、もしかしたら項目的にはいろいろあるのかもしれないけど、リストの中に「bisexual」という言葉すら入っていませんね。唯一「1993: March on Washington for Gay, Lesbian, and Bi Equal Rights」のなかで「Bi」があるだけ。やっぱり「バイセクシュアル」は無視されているね。ま、いつものことだけど。

  4. tumg Says:

    Japan Recognizesという言い方自体、かなりわけがわからないですね。「違法」であったことはないから「合法化」されるということでもないし(まあ「違法」だとしたら「認識」はされてるということだともいえるけど)、それ以外の形で特定の「国」が特定の性的アイデンティティを承認するって(しかもある特定の年に)、どういう事態を指し示しているのか、そこがそもそもわからないです。

    バイセクシュアルは常に弱いですよね。でもLGBTとかって入ってくるだけ良いかも。アセクなんて完全に無視。っていうか、日本以外でもそういうタームってあるのかしら。ある意味非常にクィアだと思うんですけれども。

  5. ひっぴぃ ♪♪ Says:

    tumgさん はじめまして。(と、人のサイトでご挨拶)
     アセクシャルもそもそもいないことにされてますよね。コミュニティーの中にはいっぱいいるのに。
     わたし、去年あたりから、「性愛者/非性愛者」「性愛強制社会」という言葉を知り、いろいろと考えさせられています。英語圏にも「A-sexual」サイトや活動はいろいろとあるみたいです。

    ●オマケ●日本で、明治のはじめに「鶏姦罪」が存在した時期が数年間ありました。なので、日本でも「違法」だった時期も少しだけあります。

  6. Yoko Says:

    今日の世界日報に同性婚禁止の米連邦憲法改正の話が出ています。

    http://www.worldtimes.co.jp/w/usa/usa2/kr040630.html

    ま、世界日報なんで(笑)、そういう立場で書かれてますけど、客観的な事実関係はほぼ正確ですので参考にしてみてください。

    それと、asexualは「エイ・セクシュアル」と読みます。「ア-」ではありません。念のためMerriam-Webster Collegiate 11thを引いてみましたけど、「エイ」の発音しか出ていません。

  7. tumg Says:

    YOKOさん、ひっぴぃさん、どうもです。
    (私もよそ様のところで、申し訳ないです)

    日本でも違法だった時期があるというのは知らなかったです。そっか。鶏姦ということは、びあんはフリーパスだったのか、そもそも無視されていたのか。それよりなにより、鶏姦というのはそもそも具体的に何をさしているのでしょうか。英語でソドミーというのは歴史的には必ずしも男性同性愛のみをさしていたわけではなく、云々という記述をどこかで読んだ記憶があるけれども。

    アセク、そうですか、英米でも使われるタームなのですね。だとするとなおさらのこと、無視されてる感がありますわ!
    普通に「セックスレス」ということで納得してしまって、政治化する必然性が感じられにくいのでしょうか。

    ちなみに、確かに英語ではエィと発音する形ですが、日本ではアセクシュアルと言っていませんか?

    いろいろ勉強になりました。ありがとうございます。